A mixture of anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles induces histamine secretion in mast cells
- Equal contributors
Bioengineering, University of California at Merced, Merced, CA, USA. 5200 North Lake RD, Merced, CA 95343, USA
Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2012, 9:2 doi:10.1186/1743-8977-9-2Published: 19 January 2012
Histamine released from mast cells, through complex interactions involving the binding of IgE to FcεRI receptors and the subsequent intracellular Ca2+ signaling, can mediate many allergic/inflammatory responses. The possibility of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a nanomaterial pervasively used in nanotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, to directly induce histamine secretion without prior allergen sensitization has remained uncertain.
TiO2 NP exposure increased both histamine secretion and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]C) in a dose dependent manner in rat RBL-2H3 mast cells. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels resulted primarily from an extracellular Ca2+ influx via membrane L-type Ca2+ channels. Unspecific Ca2+ entry via TiO2 NP-instigated membrane disruption was demonstrated with the intracellular leakage of a fluorescent calcein dye. Oxidative stress induced by TiO2 NPs also contributed to cytosolic Ca2+ signaling. The PLC-IP3-IP3 receptor pathways and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were responsible for the sustained elevation of [Ca2+]C and histamine secretion.
Our data suggests that systemic circulation of NPs may prompt histamine release at different locales causing abnormal inflammatory diseases. This study provides a novel mechanistic link between environmental TiO2 NP exposure and allergen-independent histamine release that can exacerbate manifestations of multiple allergic responses.