Frustrated phagocytosis (arrows) and the associated acute inflammatory reaction in the bronchoalveolar lavage of mice whose lungs have been instilled with long nanotubes. Aspiration of 50 μg of long fibrous multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) into the lungs of C57BL/6 mice caused an acute inflammatory reaction at 24 hrs typified by a large influx of inflammatory neutrophils (PMN) into the bronchoalveolar lavage. CNT bundles and singlet fibres were seen both within macrophages (hollow arrow) and extending outside the macrophage in the process of incomplete or frustrated phagocytosis (black arrows). All images at taken at ×1000 magnification.
Donaldson et al. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010 7:5 doi:10.1186/1743-8977-7-5