Open Access Research

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

Ioana Ferecatu1, Marie-Caroline Borot1, Camille Bossard1, Melanie Leroux1, Nicole Boggetto2, Francelyne Marano1, Armelle Baeza-Squiban1 and Karine Andreau1*

Author Affiliations

1 Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7. Unit of Functional and Adaptive Biology (BFA) CNRS EAC 4413, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Responses to Xenobiotics, Bâtiment Buffon, case courrier 7073, 5 rue Thomas Mann, 75013 Paris, France

2 Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7. Flow Cytometry Unit, Jacques Monod Institute, 75013 Paris, France

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Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010, 7:18  doi:10.1186/1743-8977-7-18

Published: 21 July 2010

Abstract

Background

Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect.

Results

In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin) by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies). The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis.

Conclusions

The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition to the well-documented inflammatory response might explain the maintenance of a prolonged inflammation state induced after pollution exposure and might delay repair processes of injured tissues.