Table 2

Summary of recent in vitro experiments carried out with CNTs

Type of CNT

System

Summary results

Reference


SWCNTs (HiPco), (CNI Inc.).

Ø: 0.4–1.2 nm

L: 1–3 μm

Lung hamster fibroblasts (V79)

Cytotoxicity (time and dose dependent)

DNA breakage (comet assay)

No significant enhancement of micronuclei

[62]


SWCNTs (50% SWCNT, about 40% other nanotubes).

Ø: 1.1 nm, L: 0.5–100 μm

BEAS 2B human bronchial epithelial cells

Dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Dose-dependent DNA damage. No formation of micronuclei

[63]


SWCNTs (NIST)

Ø: 1.4 nm, L:2–5 μm

Normal human mesothelial cells and human mesothelioma cell line

Cell death. DNA lesions

Stress response activation

[44]


SWCNTs. Folate conjugated.

Ø: 1–3 nm, L: 100 – 200 nm

HepG2 cells (express folate receptor)

No toxicity if < 50 μg/ml. Dose-dependent apoptosis. Kinetics of SWCNT internalisation: Mb → cytoplasm → extracellular

[64]


SWCNTs (HiPco)

Human lung epithelial cells A549 and immortalised NHBE

Decreased inflammatory response in TNF alpha-stimulated cells

[65]


SWCNTs Mitsui & Co., Ltd

Size unspecified

Human aortic endothelial cells

Internalisation: CNTs identified in the cytoplasm. Cytotoxicity. IL-8 release. Actin filament and Ecadherin disruption. Reduced tubule formation.

[66]


SWCNTs

Mouse embryo fibroblasts

Low cytotoxicity. DNA damage (comet assay)

Oxidative stress

[67]


MWCNTs.

Ø: 67 nm

Mouse macrophages (J774.1).

No MAPKs activation; no apoptosis.

Interaction with membrane receptors (MARCO) and plasma membrane destruction

[54]


MWCNTs.

Ø:11.3 nm

L:0.7 μm

Human epithelial cells (MCF-7)

Chromosomal aberrations (micronuclei) showing chromosome breakage and loss of whole chromosomes

[61]


MWCNTs (C100, Arkema).

Ø: 12 nm,

L: 0.1–13 μm

Human epithelial (A549) and Large T SV40 transformed mesothelial (Met-5A) cells

Decrease in cell viability (mitochondrial alteration) without apoptosis. No oxidative stress. No MWCNT internalisation

[46]


MWCNTs grinded, unheated, heated to 600°C, 2400°C; 2400°C then grinded.

Ø: 20–50 nm; L: 0.7 ± 0.07 μm

Rat lung epithelial cells.

Chromosomal aberrations (micronuclei)

Lower effects with 2400°C sample in comparison to 600°C and unheated

[57]


MWCNTs.

Ø: 100–200 nm, L:a few μm

Human epithelial cells (A549)

DNA breakage (comets).

No oxidative DNA lesions

[68]


MWCNTs

(Tsinghua & Nananfeng, Cine)

Mouse embryonic cells (ES)

P53 activation. Induction of DNA repair.

Mutations (adenine phosphoribosyl transferase)

[69]


MWCNTs Mitsui & Co., Ltd

Size unspecified

Human aortic endothelial cells

Cytotoxicity. IL-8 release. Actin filament and Ecadherin disruption. Reduced tubule formation.

[66]


MWCNTs

Human pneumocytes A549

Decrease in cell viability

Internalisation

[70]


Jaurand et al. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2009 6:16   doi:10.1186/1743-8977-6-16

Open Data