Open Access Research

Physico-chemical characterization of African urban aerosols (Bamako in Mali and Dakar in Senegal) and their toxic effects in human bronchial epithelial cells: description of a worrying situation

Stéphanie Val1*, Cathy Liousse2, El Hadji Thierno Doumbia2, Corinne Galy-Lacaux2, Hélène Cachier3, Nicolas Marchand4, Anne Badel5, Eric Gardrat2, Alexandre Sylvestre4 and Armelle Baeza-Squiban1

Author Affiliations

1 Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Responses to Xenobiotics, Unit of Functional and Adaptive Biology (BFA) EAC CNRS 4413, Paris 75 013, France

2 Laboratory of Aerology, University of Toulouse/CNRS, UMR5560, OMP, 14 Ave E, Belin, Toulouse 31400, France

3 Laboratory of Climate and Environment Sciences (LSCE), CEA-CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, Gif sur Yvette cedex 91190, France

4 Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LCE FRE 3416, Marseille 13331, France

5 Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Therapeutic Molecules in silico, Inserm UMR-S 973, Paris 75 013, France

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Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2013, 10:10  doi:10.1186/1743-8977-10-10

Published: 2 April 2013

Abstract

Background

The involvement of particulate matter (PM) in cardiorespiratory diseases is now established in developed countries whereas in developing areas such as Africa with a high level of specific pollution, PM pollution and its effects are poorly studied. Our objective was to characterize the biological reactivity of urban African aerosols on human bronchial epithelial cells in relation to PM physico-chemical properties to identify toxic sources.

Methods

Size-speciated aerosol chemical composition was analyzed in Bamako (BK, Mali, 2 samples with one having desert dust event BK1) and Dakar (DK; Senegal) for Ultrafine UF, Fine F and Coarse C PM. PM reactivity was studied in human bronchial epithelial cells investigating six biomarkers (oxidative stress responsive genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines).

Results

PM mass concentrations were mainly distributed in coarse mode (60%) and were impressive in BK1 due to the desert dust event. BK2 and DK samples showed a high content of total carbon characteristic of urban areas. The DK sample had huge PAH quantities in bulk aerosol compared with BK that had more water soluble organic carbon and metals. Whatever the site, UF and F PM triggered the mRNA expression of the different biomarkers whereas coarse PM had little or no effect. The GM-CSF biomarker was the most discriminating and showed the strongest pro-inflammatory effect of BK2 PM. The analysis of gene expression signature and of their correlation with main PM compounds revealed that PM-induced responses are mainly related to organic compounds. The toxicity of African aerosols is carried by the finest PM as with Parisian aerosols, but when considering PM mass concentrations, the African population is more highly exposed to toxic particulate pollution than French population. Regarding the prevailing sources in each site, aerosol biological impacts are higher for incomplete combustion sources resulting from two-wheel vehicles and domestic fires than from diesel vehicles (Dakar). Desert dust events seem to produce fewer biological impacts than anthropogenic sources.

Discussion

Our study shows that combustion sources contribute to the high toxicity of F and UF PM of African urban aerosols, and underlines the importance of emission mitigation and the imperative need to evaluate and to regulate particulate pollution in Africa.

Keywords:
16HBE; Particle; Lung; Inflammation; Metabolism; Oxidative stress; Organic compounds; Traffic emissions; Domestic fires; Desert dust event